Interview questions and answers on Networking & Content Delivery
1. What is Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)?
Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) enables you to launch Amazon Web Services (AWS) resources into a virtual network that you’ve defined. This virtual network closely resembles a traditional network that you’d operate in your own data center, with the benefits of using the scalable infrastructure of AWS.
2. What is Amazon Elastic Load Balancer?
Amazon Elastic Load Balancer (Amazon ELB) is a load balancing service for Amazon Web Services (AWS) deployments. ELB automatically distributes incoming application traffic across multiple targets, such as EC2 instances, containers, and IP addresses, in one or more Availability Zones.
3. What is Amazon CloudFront?
Amazon CloudFront is a content delivery network (CDN) offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It speeds up distribution of your static and dynamic web content, such as HTML, images, videos, and APIs, to customers globally with low latency and high transfer speeds.
4. What is Amazon Route 53?
Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It connects user requests to infrastructure running in Amazon Web Services (AWS), such as EC2 instances, and Route 53 also effectively routes end-users to your application by translating human-readable domain names into numerical IP addresses.
5. What is Amazon Direct Connect?
Amazon Direct Connect is a network service that provides dedicated network connections from your on-premises data centers to AWS. Using Direct Connect, you can establish private connectivity between AWS and your datacenter, office, or colocation environment, which in turn can reduce network costs, increase bandwidth throughput, and provide a more consistent network experience than internet-based connections.
6. What is Amazon VPC peering?
Amazon VPC peering is a networking connection between two Amazon Virtual Private Clouds (VPCs) that enables you to route traffic between them using private IP addresses. VPC peering can be used to facilitate communication between instances in different VPCs, and it allows for the creation of a network topology that closely resembles a traditional, on-premises data center.
7. What is Amazon VPC Endpoints?
Amazon VPC Endpoints provide a secure and scalable way to access AWS services over Amazon VPC (Virtual Private Cloud) without requiring an Internet gateway, VPN, or AWS Direct Connect. With VPC Endpoints, you can access AWS services directly from within your VPC, improving the security and performance of your data transfer.
8. What is Amazon Web Services (AWS) Transit Gateway?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) Transit Gateway is a service that enables customers to connect their Amazon Virtual Private Clouds (VPCs) and on-premises networks to a single gateway. This gateway simplifies network architecture and reduces the operational overhead of connecting multiple VPCs and on-premises networks.
9. What is Amazon Elastic Network Adapter (ENA)?
Amazon Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) is a high-performance, single root I/O virtual function (SR-IOV) virtual NIC (network interface controller) available for use with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances. ENA provides very low network latency and high network throughput, making it well-suited for network-intensive applications and high-performance computing (HPC) workloads.
10. What is Amazon Network Load Balancer?
Amazon Network Load Balancer is a type of load balancing service offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS) that operates at the transport layer (TCP/SSL). It is designed to handle tens of millions of requests per second while maintaining high levels of performance, and it is optimized for ultra-low latency and static IP addresses.
11. How does Amazon Web Services (AWS) deal with network security?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides a variety of security measures to protect its customers’ network infrastructure, data, and applications. These measures include security groups and network access control lists (ACLs) to control network traffic, Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) to isolate resources in a virtual network, and private connectivity options such as AWS Direct Connect and VPN to securely connect to the AWS cloud. Additionally, AWS provides security features such as encryption, identity and access management (IAM), and monitoring and logging tools to help secure your workloads.
12. What is Amazon S3 Transfer Acceleration?
Amazon S3 Transfer Acceleration is a feature of Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) that enables faster data uploads to Amazon S3 over the public Internet. Transfer Acceleration takes advantage of Amazon CloudFront’s globally distributed edge locations to accelerate uploads over the AWS backbone network, reducing the time required to upload large files to S3.
13. What is Amazon Web Services (AWS) Global Accelerator?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) Global Accelerator is a service that routes user traffic to the optimal AWS Region for low latency and high performance. It uses Anycast IP, a unique IP address that maps to multiple AWS regions, to route incoming application traffic to the closest AWS region where the backend resources are located. This provides fast and consistent application performance, regardless of the user’s location.
14. What is Amazon Web Services (AWS) App Mesh?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) App Mesh is a service mesh for microservices applications that makes communication between services simple, reliable, and fast. It provides fine-grained visibility and network traffic control, and it integrates with popular service discovery mechanisms to automatically route traffic. AWS App Mesh eliminates the need for custom service-to-service communication code and helps to ensure that your services work seamlessly with each other, even as your infrastructure changes.
15. What is Amazon Route 53?
Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable Domain Name System (DNS) web service offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It allows you to route traffic to your applications and resources on the Internet using domain names, rather than IP addresses. Route 53 supports various routing policies, such as simple routing, weight-based routing, latency-based routing, and failover routing, to help you control the routing of traffic to your applications.
16. What is Amazon CloudFront?
Amazon CloudFront is a content delivery network (CDN) service offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It delivers content, such as web pages, video, and APIs, to customers using a global network of edge locations. CloudFront can be used to improve the performance and reliability of your websites and applications by caching content closer to your users and reducing the load on your origin servers.
17. What is Amazon Direct Connect?
Amazon Direct Connect is a network service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) that enables customers to establish a dedicated network connection from their data center to AWS. Direct Connect provides a dedicated network connection with low latency, high bandwidth, and improved reliability compared to a public Internet connection. This makes it an ideal solution for customers who want to transfer large amounts of data to or from AWS, or for customers who want to use AWS as a disaster recovery site.
18. What is Amazon Web Services (AWS) Global Infrastructure?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) Global Infrastructure is a network of regions and availability zones that provides customers with the ability to deploy their applications and resources globally. The AWS Global Infrastructure is designed to be highly available, scalable, and secure, and it provides customers with the ability to choose the geographic location of their resources to meet their performance, compliance, and disaster recovery requirements.
19. How does Amazon VPC work?
Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) allows customers to launch AWS resources into a virtual network that is isolated from the public Internet. Customers can create subnets, assign security groups and network access control lists (ACLs) to subnets, and configure route tables to control the traffic routing within their VPC. VPC also provides private IP addresses, which are not reachable from the public Internet, and the ability to connect to your own data center using Amazon Direct Connect or a VPN connection.
20. What is Amazon Web Services (AWS) PrivateLink?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) PrivateLink is a secure, scalable network communication mechanism between VPCs, AWS services, and on-premises applications, eliminating the exposure of data to the public Internet. With PrivateLink, traffic between your VPCs and AWS services stays within the Amazon network. This makes it possible to transfer data between VPCs and AWS services over an Amazon VPC endpoint, rather than over the Internet, providing increased security and privacy for your data.
21. What is Amazon Web Services (AWS) Global Accelerator used for?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) Global Accelerator is used to improve the performance of applications and services that are hosted in the AWS cloud. It routes user traffic to the closest AWS region, based on the user’s location, to provide fast and consistent application performance. Global Accelerator is designed for customers who want to improve the performance of their global applications, reduce the impact of network latency, and provide a better user experience for their customers.
22. What is Amazon Web Services (AWS) App Mesh used for?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) App Mesh is used to simplify network traffic management and communication between microservices applications in the AWS cloud. App Mesh provides a consistent way to monitor, control, and secure communication between services, and it eliminates the need for custom service-to-service communication code. App Mesh helps customers to ensure that their services work seamlessly with each other, even as their infrastructure changes, and it provides fine-grained visibility into the communication between services.